Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)


  •  A TBI may occur after the head experiences blunt force trauma, or it may also result from severe infections or oxygen deprivation.
  •  An injury that affects how the brain works.


TBI can have a range of effects that depend on the type of injury, how severe the injury is, and what part of the brain is injured. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, these health effects can sometimes remain for a long time or even be permanent.

Click to read this article: Cognitive Effects of Astaxanthin Pretreatment on Recovery from Traumatic Brain Injury (Fleischmann, C., Shohami, E., Trembovler, V., Heled, Y., & Horowitz, M., 2020)

Physical symptoms

  • Loss of consciousness from several minutes to hours.
  • Persistent headache or headache that worsens.
  • Repeated vomiting or nausea.
  • Convulsions or seizures.
  • Dilation of one or both pupils of the eyes.
  • Clear fluids draining from the nose or ears.
  • Inability to awaken from sleep.


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